Life Lessons from Movies

Evolution

In Documentary, Movies on February 26, 2014 at 4:05 PM

Evolution: Darwin’s Dangerous Idea (2001) is a documentary co-written and co-directed by David Espar and Susan K. Lewis about naturalist Charles Robert Darwin and his theory of evolution, published in 1859, that established that all forms of life on Earth are related because they descended from a common ancestor via natural selection, a process whereby individuals better suited to their environment survive and reproduce while those that aren’t well suited perish, thus creating genetic changes in populations which overtime can become so great that a split from the original population occurs, leading to the formation of new species.

Life Lesson:

Biological evolution (genetic change over time in populations via descent with modification through genetic inheritance) is caused by four mechanisms: natural selection (individuals better adapted to their environment tend to survive and reproduce, thus passing their genes to their offspring), mutation (a change in the structure of a gene), migration (gene flow from one population to another) and genetic drift (a change in the frequency of a gene in a population due to random chance).

Movie Scene:

David Page: “In the 19th century, in Darwin’s time, it was audacious to claim that humans and chimps were closely related. There wasn’t that much scientific evidence. But since that time, the evidence has become strong. First, we saw the fossil record appear. Evidence of human ancestors that had apelike features established the plausibility of the idea that humans and chimps had common ancestors. And then in the last twenty years, we’ve seen the emergence of a whole new type of data that’s established a close relationship between chimps and humans. And that comes from the analysis of DNA. This is DNA. We’ve got DNA. Chimps have got DNA. Bacteria have got DNA. Petunias have got DNA. Crabs have got DNA. Every living animal, plant, fish, frog has got DNA, and if we compare the DNAs of any two species, we can establish how closely related they are one to another. […] Here we’re looking at the DNA sequences of one particular gene that’s found in human and chimp and what’s immediately evident is that humans and chimps have DNAs that are 98% identical. They’re basically the same, there are just a couple of spelling changes. Why are there only a couple of spelling changes? Because we and chimps had a common ancestor only a few million years ago. And these few spelling differences have accumulated during the propagation of this DNA during those few million years. If more time had passed since we had our last common ancestor, more spelling changes would have accumulated.

Narrator: “If the same gene from a rat is compared, many more spelling differences are seen.”

David Page: “That’s because our common ancestor with the rat lived about 80 or 100 million years ago, and there’s been much more time for spelling differences to accumulate.”

Advertisements
  1. When we compare human genomes to other life forms we find that:

    We share 50% of the genes in bananas
    We share 60% of the genes in fruit flies
    We share 90% of the genes in mice
    We share 98.4% of the genes in chimpanzees
    We share 99.9% of the genes in humans

    That is, we share 50% – 98.4% of their genes. 50% of the genes in a banana are in us, 90% of the genes in a mouse are in us.

    http://genome.pfizer.com/station2-4.cfm
    https://www.koshland-science-museum.org/sites/all/exhibits/exhibitdna/intro03.jsp
    http://genecuisine.blogspot.com/2011/03/human-dna-similarities-to-chimps-and.html
    https://tdc.okstate.edu/ancient-dna-and-us
    http://qjmed.oxfordjournals.org/content/95/3/195.full
    http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2013/07/125-explore/shared-genes
    http://www.genomenewsnetwork.org/resources/sequenced_genomes/genome_guide_p1.shtml
    http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-closely-related-are-h/

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: